Suitable varieties for different grape growing regions
|Maharashtra, Northern Karnataka and Hyderabad||Thompson Seedless and its mutants like Tas – A – Ganesh, Sonaka and Manik Chaman and A 17/3 found promising, however, yet to be released; colored seedless varieties like Fantasy Seedless, Sharad Seedless and Crimson Seedless; seeded varieties like Red Globe (found promising but yet to be recommended).|
|South Interior Karnataka||Thompson Seedless, Sonaka, Flame Seedless, Sharad Seedless, Crimson Seedless and Red Globe|
|Tamil Nadu||Thompson Seedless (for Table Purpose), Gulabi, Bangalore Blue (Juice purpose)|
|North India||Flame Seedless, Perlette and Beauty Seedless|
Varieties Presently in Export
New Potential Varieties for Export
In India, Thompson Seedless and its mutants viz. Sonaka, Tas-A-Ganesh. Manik Chaman are mainly used for raisin production although Arkavati grape found to be promising and earlier recommended by Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore. NRC for Grapes, Pune have also come out with varieties viz. A 17-3, E 12/3, Mint Seedless, Superior Seedless, KR White, Manik Chaman, A 18-3 (Coloured seedless) and Cardinal (For Manukka) found promising for the production of raisin, but are yet to accept on commercial footing.
Rootstocks are being employed in Indian viticulture to overcome the adverse effects of salinity and drought and also to modify the scion physiology / morphology in terms of vigor, fruitfulness, bunches and berry characters etc. Of the available rootstock in the active Germplasm of the institute, promising ones are under evaluation for drought and salt tolerance. Dog ridge rootstock was known for its drought and salt tolerance in major grape growing regions of India and hence its compatibility with the promising varieties of grapes like Thompson Seedless and its mutants has been established. As a result it was most widely accepted rootstock in India. Of late, Dog ridge rootstock is posing few problems like uneven bud burst after pruning, less fruitfulness and increased deadwood in the cordons, which has been attributed to its more vigor inducing capacity to scions under heavy black cotton soils. The systematic evaluation of rootstocks revealed rootstocks of V. berlandierii × V. rupestris group like 110 R, 99 R, and 1103 P etc. as most drought and salt tolerant. Among these, rootstock 110 R is gaining popularity because of its increased fruitfulness, moderate vigor, restricted uptake of chlorides and increased water use efficiency under moisture stress conditions. Maximum accumulation of phenolic compounds was observed in Thompson Seedless grafted on these rootstocks, which may offer fair degree of resistance to major grape diseases like downy mildew and powdery mildew. The propagation techniques like concentration of IBA, planting media, season of planting etc has been standardized for multiplying rootstocks by hard wood cuttings. Similarly time and stage of in situ grafting, chip budding and green grafting have been standardized to raise rootstock vineyards. Advanced grafting techniques like bench-grafting using grafting machines needs to be standardized. Work on molecular characterization of rootstocks to identify drought and salt tolerant gene has to be initiated to develop suitable rootstock for Indian condition, which can well adapt to semi arid tropics of India where grape is grown under larger area.
If the soil characteristics are ideal without any salinity and alkalinity problems and if the quality of irrigation water is also good, it is not necessary always to employ rootstocks. It is evidence from few vineyards in some of the grape growing districts that own rooted vineyards are performing equally well under good cultural management conditions under good soil and water quality conditions even after 15-20 years of planting.
Some of the other research findings under rootstock projects are as follows:
Rootstocks suggested based on global data for different situation
|1.||Water shortage||1103 P, 140 RU, 110 R, 420 A, SO 4, 99 R, St. George, Dogridge|
|2.||Soil EC more than 2 m mohs/cm and water EC more than 1 m mohs/cm||Ramsey, Dogridge, 140 RU, 99 R, 110 R.|
|3.||Soil ESP more than 15 per cent and/or water SAR more than 8.||140 RU, 1613, Ramsey, Dogridge.|
|4.||Free calcium content of soil is more than 12%||140 RU, SO 4, 420 A.|
|5.||Chloride content of water is more than 4 meq/litre||Ramsey, Dogridge B, 140 RU. Teleki 5-C|
|6.||Poor vigor of the variety without any soil/water problem||Dogridge, St. George, SO 4, 140 RU.|
|7.||For increased nitrogen, potassium uptake.||Dogridge, St. George, 34 EM, Ramsey.|
|8.||For increased bud break||1613, B2-56.|