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मौसम पूर्वानुमान आधारित साप्ताहिक सलाह

Weather Forecast Based Weekly Advisory

(Assumption: Fruit Pruning date - 15/04/2019)


I.        Weather Data for the Prevailing Week


Thursday (18/04/2019) Thursday (25/04/2019)

Location

Temperature

(C)

 

Possibility of Rain

 

Cloud Cover

Wind Speed

(Km/hr)

R H%

 

Min

Max

Min

Max

Nashik

22-25

37-41

Ojhar, Vani

Thu Drizzling

Clear

03-13

12-15

43-55

Pune

22-25

38-41

No Rain

Clear

04-18

14-16

44-63

Solapur

25-28

39-40

No Rain

Clear

07-14

15-18

39-44

Sangli

23-27

39-40

Khanapur

Sun Drizzling

Clear

05-19

16-18

40-68

Bijapur

25-29

39-40

No Rain

Clear

09-18

14-18

37-47

Hyderabad

24-25

38-41

Zahirabad

Fri- Mon Drizzling

Hyderabad, Medchal

Thu- Fri  Drizzling

Clear

07-13

22-29

89-94

Note: Above weather information is summary of weather forecasting given in following websites

http://www.imd.gov.in/, http://wxmaps.org/pix/prec6.html, http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/, http://www.wunderground.com/, http://www.bbcweather.com-weather/1269750, etc.

II.  a) Days after pruning:  04

 

      b) Expected growth stage of the crop: -  Post harvest resting / very early pruning stage

 

III.   Nutrient and Irrigation Management (Dr. A.K. Upadhyay)


Expected pan evaporation: 8 to 11  mm


Amount of irrigation advised:

  1. Rest period: Provide only need based irrigation to protect the existing leaves from drying and also contribute towards increasing the reserves of the vines through photosynthetic activity. The quantum of irrigation water applied should be approx. 5000 L/ acre, twice in a week. Care should be taken to reduce/stop the water in case new growth is observed on the shoot.

  2. Shoot growth stage:

  3. Fruit Bud Differentiation stage  Apply irrigation through surface drip @ 5000 to 5500 L/acre per day during shoot growth stage for Nasik, Pune and Hyderabad region and from 5500- 6000 L/acre per day for Solapur, Sangli and Bijapur region.  

  4. In case there is probability of less irrigation water availability, then flood the bund (not whole vineyard) at pruning and mulch the bunds. Flooding the bund will reduce the accumulated salt load in the root zone and mulching will reduce the evaporation of water from soil surface. Thus, this will reduce the salt load in the soil and at the same time saturate the soil leading to proper sprouting. Further, in case less irrigation water is available still the newly emerging shoots will not be damaged due to salinity.

  5. Cover the cordons of the pruned vines with shadenet, if available, for uniform sprouting as well as reducing the irrigation water needs by 20-25 %. Shadenet coverage will reduce the temperature impact on the cordons. However, remove shadenet after 3-5 leaf stage.

  6.  If shadenet is not available, spray the cordons with water during the peak heat period i.e. 2-3 pm to reduce the heat effect on the buds.

 

Rest period to Foundation pruning:


1.           Before pruning, test the vineyard soil and irrigation water to plan for soil, nutrient and water management.

2.           Apply 10kg Urea, 10 kg DAP and 10 kg Sulphate of Potash/ acre in two splits every 15-20 days.

3.           The vineyards where sodicity problems are there, apply gypsum to the soil for removal of sodium from the soil exchange complex.  In case of calcareous soils, use sulphur for similar purpose.

Foundation pruning season:


1.      Apply FYM/ compost/other organic sources including green manuring atleast 12-15 days before Foundation pruning.  If possible mix 200 kg Single super phosphate in the FYM and apply in the soil.   Application of organics improves the nutrient and water retention in the root zone and reduces nutrient losses from the profile.

2.       If soils are calcareous in nature, then apply 50 kg sulphur between the vines in the soil. The sulphur should be properly mixed in the soil for improving its efficacy in taking care of calcium carbonates.  Mixing of sulphur in organics lead to better utilization of sulphur for reducing calcium carbonate in the root zone along with reduction in soil pH also.

3.      At shoot growth stage, apply 25 kg urea/ acre in 2 -3 splits after sprouting.  In case of vigorous growth of shoots, stop nitrogen application and wait for the growth to stabilize before resuming nitrogen application.  In calcareous soils, donot apply urea, instead use Ammonium sulphate @ 40 kg/acre in atleast 3 splits from sprouting onwards till next 10 days.

4.      During fruit bud differentiation stage, based upon soil test values, apply 45 50 kg phosphoric acid or 250 kg SSP in case the soils are deficient in phosphorus.  Phosphoric acid application is desirable in calcareous soils.

5.      At 45 DAP, perform petiole test to know the nutrient content of the vines.  The petioles should be collected from 5th leaf from the base of the shoot counting the leaves even if they have been removed.

5.      Keep a close watch on the development of leaf blackening symptoms from the margin. 

V. Requirement of growth regulators (Dr. S.D. Ramteke)  

 

Nil.

 

VI. Canopy management (Dr. R.G. Somkuwar)


Old vineyard:

During the last week, the grape vineyard experienced either heavy rains or rains coupled with hailstorm. This has resulted into wither damage of growing shoots, splitting of shoot and also leaf damage. Under this condition, the following measures are advised.

1)     The growing shoot tip was damaged due to heavy rains: The shoot to be cut just below the damaged node. This will help in early and fast growth of side shoots. Apply nitrogenous fertilizers for vegetative growth.

2)     The splitting of bark as well as growing shoot: Under the condition of bark splitting, only one spray of copper fungicides will be sufficient to avoid further infection. Such type of shoots need not be cut. However, in case of severe damage to the growing shoots, re-cutting of these shoots just below the damaged portion should be done. This will help in avoiding further splitting of shoot as well as growth of shoot.

3)     The increase in relative humidity in the atmosphere will help for faster growth of shoots after the fresh re-cut. Application of nitrogen and phosphorous based fertilizers should be given priority at this time.

 

VII.   Disease management ( Dr. Sujoy Saha)

 

Days after pruning

Risk of diseases

Downy mildew

Powdery mildew

Anthracnose

Others (specify)

    -

NIL

NIL

LOW

bacterial spot

 

Wherever pruning is complete, the arms are exposed to hot sun and as they are exposed to direct sunlight, their temperature increases to 50-520 C. It is advised to spray water around 1-2pm in the afternoon to protect the arms from excess heat as well as to ensure uniform sprouting. Early sprouting will provide the necessary shade to the arms. Precaution should be taken that arms do not dry up or otherwise borers might get attracted towards them. In areas where pruning is done application of Mancozeb @ 2g/L + Thiophenate methyl @ 1g/L may be done to control bacterial spot and anthracnose diseases

 

VII.    Insect and Mite management. (Dr. D.S. Yadav)

 

Days after pruning

Risk of pests

Mealybug

Mite

Thrips/leafhopper

Caterpillar

>165 days after fruit pruning

Stage: Vine resting stage after harvest

High

High

Low

Nil

Just after foundation pruning

High

Nil

Nil

Nil

 

   

     Crop advisory relevant to different places is prepared by experts, considering forecasted weather, crop growth stages in majority of vineyards and ground information on incidence of different conditions in different grape growing areas received from regular interaction with progressive grape growers. No claims are made on its correctness.

Usefulness of this information may be communicated to us at director.nrcg@icar.gov.in.

 

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